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Andrew Bell Armstrong (1811-1872)

Founder of the Sunday Morning Breakfast for the Poor

Andrew Bell Armstrong was born in Ireland around 1811 and died in Sydney on 17 June 1872, at 61 years of age.[1] Andrew married Barbara Iredale on 20 July 1844 in Sydney[2] and they were to have three children: Mary (b 1846), Thomas (b 1849) and John (b 1851). Barbara was to prove to be a willing partner in Andrew’s philanthropic efforts. Barbara Iredale was 28 years old on her arrival in the colony in 1842. She came with her mother and father, and she had with her a daughter, Sarah, from a previous relationship who was born in 1841. Sarah would later marry WS Buzacott who would be Andrew’s business partner. 

Military Background

Andrew came from a family with a military tradition, and he said he descended from ‘a long line of British soldiers’. All his uncles were in the army and his father was a volunteer[3] and so he uncritically followed the family tradition when he joined His Majesty’s (HM) 80th Regiment of Foot (also known as the Staffordshire Volunteers).  Later in life he was to rethink his attitude to soldiering. HM 80th Regiment of Foot had a proud history with extensive overseas engagements but, prior to Armstrong joining the Regiment, it had been stationed from 1831 in various parts of England and Ireland. This is most likely when Andrew, being Irish, joined the Regiment.[4] A detachment of the Regiment sailed from England on 23 May 1836 for Sydney with the task of accompanying a group of convicts. The remainder of the Regiment with its colours, and presumably Armstrong who was a ‘colour serjeant’, did not leave until 6 March 1837 and arrived in Sydney on 11 July of that year. The Regiment’s duties meant that,

During the stay of the 80th in New South Wales, it has been divided into a great number of very small detachments, distributed over nearly the whole colony, chiefly guards over prisoners at stockades – a duty harassing to the soldier and prejudicial to discipline.[5]

The Regiment was initially stationed at Sydney but soon after its arrival marched to Windsor where it remained until 2 January 1841. At this date, the headquarters of the Regiment was then relocated to Parramatta where it remained until 16 June 1842 when it proceeded to be located in Sydney. The troops remained in Sydney until embarking for India on 12 August 1844.[6] Armstrong, who later in life reflected on being a soldier, spoke of the time he was in Parramatta hospital so it would seem he was part of the Parramatta resident detachment.[7] In 1844, when the 80th Regiment was posted to India,[8] Armstrong, even though he had the prospect of obtaining a commission as an officer, resigned. He was later to say he felt ‘it was not a place for a Christian man’[9] but perhaps, at the time, he had another incentive to remain in NSW. Less than a month before the Regiment left, on 12 August 1844,[10] he was to marry Barbara Iredale. [11]

Armstrong and the Peace Society

On 10 October 1860, some 14 years after Andrew had left the British Army, a meeting was held in the Juvenile Temperance Hall, Francis Street, to form a Peace Society on the principle that all war was irreconcilable with the teaching of Christ and his apostles.[12] Advertisements were placed in newspapers to solicit the support of like-minded citizens. This both gathered the sympathetic and raised opposition, to which the society responded through its secretary. Various tracts, said to be in their ‘many thousands’, were distributed with titles such as ‘on the Unlawfulness of War’, ‘War and the Bible’, ‘War irreconcilable with the Bible’ and ‘The law of self-defence compared with Christ’s law of non-retaliation’. Circulars were sent to all ministers in the colony,

… appealing directly to them respecting their duty as the professed spiritual leaders of the people, to urge on their hearers the absolute necessity of relying on God alone as their protector in time of danger, and the sinfulness of wilfully inflicting bodily injury on their fellow men.[13]

Furthermore, in direct opposition to the volunteer movement which encouraged young men to come forward to form a volunteer army to protect the colony, addresses were circulated,

… directly calling on the professing Christian young men of the colony to desist in their preparation for a bloody conflict with men like unto themselves, and urging on them the duty of regarding the teachings of Christ as superior to all other.’[14]

Armstrong was a key member of the group and as an ex-military man gave a powerful apologetic for the Peace Society and, on numerous occasions, spoke of his military life at public meetings of the Society. He opposed the formation of the Volunteers for,

if they desired to corrupt a community they had but to get a regiment of soldiers amongst them … [and that it] would be found more expensive than a regular force   [and that] … it induced among those who became volunteers, idle habits and tastes adverse to the common duties of life. He knew from experience, that a military profession was not congenial to a Christian life … it was not a place for a Christian man.[15]

He had concluded from his military life that:

It was no little matter to him to try to reconcile the precepts of Christianity and the Articles of War. The Gospel said, “If your enemy hunger feed him; if he thirst give him drink.” The Articles of War said, “If your enemy is before you; or a fellow-creature who happened to be born on the other side of a little bit of water, shoot him down, or run a bayonet through him.” And if a soldier refused to do that, he might be shot or otherwise punished, as a court martial might direct. He had found that the best way to conquer a man was by kindness. A few kind words often reconciled a man.[16]

By the late 1860s, the society had lapsed and needed to be reformed and so on 11 November 1870 a number of those involved in the original Peace Society reformed it at a gathering in the new meeting house of the Society of Friends. This reinvigoration was in part due to the hostilities on the Continent between the Prussians and the French.[17] AB Armstrong was appointed the president and remained so until his death in 1872.

Armstrong’s attitude to the role of the military being in conflict with Christian teaching goes some way to explaining his membership of the Society for the Abolition of Capital Punishment. It not surprising that the Peace Society rejoiced at the news of the formation in 1866 of the Society for the Abolition of Capital Punishment.[18] The rejoicing was a little premature, however, as the society was not actually founded until 1869.[19]Armstrong joined and was supportive sometimes chairing its meetings.[20]

Christian Faith

Armstrong’s Christian faith, his theological perspectives and his specific church activities are largely unknown. He is mentioned as helping conduct, in 1849, the newly formed and struggling Sunday School at the Surry Hills (Bourke Street) Wesleyan Church. This Church was the Iredale family church which had been built in 1847-9 on land donated by Launcelot Iredale. In the early 1860’s he chaired several meetings of the Kent Street Primitive Methodist Church which would indicate some participation at this church[21] and he is mentioned as the secretary of the Primitive Methodist Sunday School Kent Street[22] and this may well be so as it was regarded as a mission outreach to the poor of that area.[23]

Surry Hills Wesleyan Church Bourke Street, Sydney (National Museum of Australia)

Armstrong was, in 1868, elected president of the Wesleyan or Protestant Benefit Society which was a nineteenth-century medical benefits scheme.[24] He had been involved with the society at least since 1862 when in chairing a meeting of the society he explained the non-sectarian nature of the society as anyone could join and :

that the society had been in existence fifteen years. The terms of subscription were not much over £2 a year, and in return for that there was medical attendance for the whole family, each member had a £1 a week during the time of illness, rendering a man unable to work; £20 when the husband died, and £10 when the wife died. No demand for the latter were paid out of the funds, yet when a man died, each contributed 2s, when a woman died  1s, so that in this way their funds accumulated as they had done. They were not afraid of insolvency.[25]

As was the practice of the Society when Armstrong died the members of the society were invited to attend the funeral of their deceased bother.[26]

Business Life

Andrew, after leaving the army, went to work for Barbara’s uncle, Launcelot Iredale (1789-1848), the owner of Iredale’s Australian Iron Warehouse, later known as L Iredale, Ironmonger, 67 George Street. He had commenced business as an ironmonger in 1820[27] and, after a successful time as a sole owner, he admitted two partners to the business in 1841, Ralph Hindmarsh and George Edwin Stafford.[28] Stafford, aged 35, died shortly afterwards on 16 November 1841[29] and this was followed less than three months later by Hindmarsh who, aged 37, died on 8 February 1842[30] after being kicked by a horse.[31] These two events affected the business and it appears that Launcelot encouraged his elder brother and Barbara’s father Thomas (1787-1860) and his family to leave Newcastle UK and join him in business in the Colony of NSW in December 1842.[32] With the death of Launcelot in 1848, the business was purchased by a partnership which included Robert Iredale, Thomas’ son and Launcelot’s nephew, and it continued to trade as Iredale and Co.[33]

At some stage, Armstrong left Iredale and Co, possibly shortly after the time of Launcelot’s death when the new partnership arrangements were put in place. In any case, it must have been well before 1858 when Andrew took over John Carr’s ship chandlery business for Carr described Armstrong, the new owner, as his ‘old shopman’ implying that Armstrong had been working for Carr for some time. In 1858, the business was renamed as A B Armstrong, Ship Chandler.[34] Eventually, Andrew’s step-daughter Sarah married WS Buzacott who became Armstrong’s partner in 1868 by which time iron mongery had been added to the business.[35] On Andrew’s death in 1872, his son Thomas entered into partnership with WS Buzacott and the firm became known as Buzacott and Armstrong. Well after Thomas’ retirement in 1877 the firm, in 1890, became Buzacott and Co and was now being run entirely by the Buzacott family.

The YMCA, the Sunday Morning Breakfast, temperance and the  Francis Street Refuge

A Young Men’s Christian Association was formed in Sydney in 1853 but by 1862 it was struggling and was virtually defunct. Its library of some 1,700 books, many of a self-improving nature, was sold and while large meetings were not held at this time, nor public lectures given as before, the embers of the work remained. The young men who had originally formed the association, such as Benjamin Short, Walter S Buzacott, Sharp Lewis and William F Newman had, following the example of what had been done in London, met monthly for breakfast.[36] It was reported that in the Temperance Hall:

some young men who desired to be useful to their fellow-creatures, adopted the practice of taking breakfast together on Sunday morning for the purpose of mutually encouraging and instructing each other in pursuing their Christian course, irrespective of denominational distinction.[37]  

This practice, known as the Young Men’s Breakfast Association (YMBA), had commenced on 26 January 1862. Armstrong was present at the third monthly YMBA meeting, held on 31 March 1862. One young man at the breakfast commented that in coming to the venue he had observed ‘the abject want of many poor persons in the streets of Sydney’ and regretted that he did not take the opportunity to speak with them.[38] In response to this observation Armstrong had offered that if the young men would join him in collecting the poor on the next Sabbath morning he would propose,

to some of his friends to make provision for the hungry, by giving a good substantial breakfast to forty of them the next Sunday morning, at the Temperance Hall and he himself … [would give] the first pound for this kind of work.[39]

Those who put on this Sunday Morning Breakfast (SMB) for the poor, for a reason they never explained, were to call themselves the ‘Fry Company’ or perhaps ‘Try Company’.[40] As  it turned out, few of the young men took up the challege, but three of the Temperance Hall committee (probably a reference to John S Jones, William Winter and John Davis)[41] joined in helping to round up vagrants to come to breakfast. By the end of the first year of operation of the SMB, the helpers consisted of about six to eight males and three females who were regular and constant workers on each sabbath.  For the first nine months, the meals were ordered and provided through the Temperance Coffee Rooms, but this arrangement proved expensive so a small group of men and women took on the task of preparing the meal on the Saturday and cleaning up at its conclusion.[42] They were, among others, Andrew and Barabra Armstrong and their son John, George and Mary Ann Lucas,[43]  John S Jones, Mr and Mrs William Winter and John and Sarah Ayres.[44] Initially, the SMB only invited males but, with the presence of ladies to assist at the breakfast, females were added to the invitation list.[45]

While the commencement of the SMB may seem spontaneous and a response of the moment by Armstrong to a discussion at that YMBA breakfast about the poor and homeless, this is not so. Armstrong had been giving the matter thought for some time and the discussion that morning led him to believe the time was appropriate to give his views and introduce the plan of a SMB.[46]

 He later, self-effacingly, described the genesis of the SMB and his thinking in this way:

A man who took an interesst in the poor of Sydney read in Dr Gutherie’s “Plea for Ragged Schools” of a poor woman whom the author visited, and sought to instruct in the way of salvation, who gave no other answer than this:- “I’m cauld and hungry.” This man thought it would be well to give the poor of Sydney a breakfast, and then tell them of regeneration and all other spiritual truths.[47]

The man was of course Armstrong himself. It appears that Gutherie’s book was not the only publication that influenced Armstrong’s decision for a confidant of Armstrong, John Richard Houlding, many years later relayed the following:

… Mr A B Armstong called to see me, and in a very pathetic manner, spoke of his earnest desire to do something for the outcasts of Sydney, and with tears flowing down his rugged face, said how much he felt for the poor and homeless lying in the streets, having been turned out late on Saturday nights. He said that he and his good wife had talked the matter over carefully and prayerfully, and had resolved to try some means of helping them. He had consulted with one or two other kindhearted neighbours, including a Mr and Mrs Geo. Lucas, Mr and Mrs Winters, and others whose names I forget, and they had offered to co-operate with him in renting the Temperance Hall, Sydney, in which to gather some of these men and women, and give them a free breakfast; also to give them Christian counsel, which seemed impossible to convey to them in any other way. He came to ask my advice on the subject, which I willingly gave, I had just read the first volume of Geo. Muller’s, giving account of his orphanage at Ashley Downs. It was a soul-stirring narrative of the all –sufficiency of the divine grace in helping earnest workers. I gave the work to Mr Armstrong, and advised him and his co-workers to read it … when he called again his heart seemed much elated by having read the book, and he said that they had agreed to begin the difficult work in sole reliance upon the Lord, and adopt Mr Muller’s “faith principle.” I commended their plan, and gladly promised all assistance in my power, and they went away to begin operations.[48]

Temperance played a significant role in the work of the SMB movement as can be seen by what transpired at the gatherings for they consisted in more than having a good breakfast. The state of those who came to breakfast was viewed as largely a direct result of intemperance. A vistor to a breakfast meeting in its first year of operation described his morning at such a meeting in the following way:

Preparation for each Sunday Breakfast would begin early at 6 am. Then comes in a man with a woman, who apparently is his wife. They ‘are not dressed with neatness … but they are not dissipated as the rest, who were found lying in the streets or the Domain all night. They go up with an air of confidence, and Mrs. ­­­­­______ shakes hands with them, and Mr._____ welcomes them again. There are a few more in the room of the same class. Who are they? In a low whisper the inquirer is told that these are parties who were, some Sundays ago, brought in, and were induced to take the pledge. They are tidy looking in the cast-off clothes that were given to them. They are holding out against temptation; they have entered on a course of reformation. Breakfast over, some three or four of the persons taking part, in the proceedings, give short exhortations on the evils of intemperance, and the necessity of reform, in order to be well in this world or the next. To encourage them to make an attempt, the speakers sometimes refer to their own history, and tell them they were, some fourteen or eighteen years ago, as deeply sunk in wretchedness, through drink, as the miserable objects before them; that their reformation commenced with their taking the pledge. One or two engage in prayer, and the pledge is offered to those willing to take it. Some eight or ten walk up and sign their names …[49] 

Given this emphasis, it is not surprising that Armstrong and many of those involved had strong temperance backgrounds, indeed the initial group that assisted were members of the Total Abstinence Society.[50] Armstrong, a Wesleyan as early as 1847, in the company of Robert Iredale, addressed a temperance meeting telling them that he had learned to drink in the army but when his health was imperiled by drink in 1842 and he was ‘given over by the doctors’, he became a teetotaler and he recovered.[51] Armstrong not only embraced total abstinence and from then on enjoyed good health, he also actively promoted it. He was often the chairman or secretary of the Temperance Alliance and a speaker at their weekly meetings.[52] The issue at the SMB, however, was not simply one of achieving temperance and prosperity for, behind this attitude to alcohol and poverty, a clear Christian influence and motivation was evident. As seen in the first newspaper reports of the SMB this dual influence of temperance and faith was clear.

A somewhat novel mode of seeking the promotion of the benevolent designs of Christianity, has been set on foot in Sydney. A number of young men, who are employed in various Christian labours on the Sabbath … have been acting on the plan of going out early on Sunday morning to invite to a breakfast at the Temperance Hall as many as they could. This unusual kindness has given opportunity to urge on their guests the renunciation of intemperate and immoral habits, and attendance on the ministration of the Gospel.[53]

Furthermore the workers, motivated by their Christian faith to be involved in this movement, thought that the idea, common in nineteenth-century philanthropy, of the ‘deserving’ and the ‘undeserving’ being categories that defined those to whom assistance was to be given, had no meaning. Their clear rejection of this approach to the application of help flowed from their understanding of the gospel.

Many cold and selfish people tell us the poor creatures are not deserving of our care and sympathy. We say God’s plan is not to deal with sinners according to their deserts, but according to His mercy, and we believe there is not one of His creatures sunk so low that they should be deprived of hearing the glorious message that our blessed Lord and Saviour told his disciples to go out into all the world and tell to every creature that whosoever believes shall be saved. Thus having God’s authority, blessed with health and strength and the means, we have continued to work for the destitute and the stranger …[54] 

The breakfasts were for anyone who was in need

On Sunday morning last 116 poor persons, consisting of 103 men and 13 women, were provided with a free breakfast in the upper room of the Temperance Hall, Pitt-street. Those present were of various ages and characters: some were young men out of employment and with no means- the difficulties of their lot having depressed their spirits and almost crushed out their energies; others were old and decrepit, unable to work, and dependent upon charity for their daily bread; some doubtless were in their low and miserable condition through drink and vicious habits.[55]

The Francis Street Night Refuge and Reformatory

The SMB for the poor arose directly out of the YMBA meetings,[56] but it was nurtured by the temperance movement through members of the Total Abstinence Society.[57] In addition to this, not long after the SMB began, it was realized, in the winter of 1862, that a night refuge to provide accommodation was also needed.[58]

John R Houlding, a supporter of the SMB and a helper in the ministry expressed this need in a June 1862 newspaper article saying:

… our benevolence requires to be exercised still further; that scores of poor creatures sleep in the open air, every night, is  a melancholy fact; and they have no other nightly refuge than the lock-up … A home, or place of nightly refuge, is, we think, imperatively called for. Such an institution would be inexpensive, and if only shelter and a good fire were provided for the night they would be acceptable boons to many, who are now nightly exposed to piercing wintry winds, and occasional frost, fogs, or rain.[59]

The workers of the SMB set about providing a refuge. Their initial efforts proved unsuccessful, but on 20 June 1863 Mary Ann and George Lucas took the initiative and opened such a refuge in the Juvenile Temperance Hall, Francis Street, Woolloomooloo, adjacent to their own home.[60] They were assisted by Armstrong and John Mills a grocer with a business in Brickfield Hill and by some of those who were already involved in the SMB.[61] The popularity of the refuge became so great that this private concern needed the assistance of the wider public so on 1 July 1865[62] it was more formally organized as a public charity know as Sydney Night Refuge and Reformatory (SNRR).[63] One significant limitation of this refuge was that it only admitted men and a similar refuge for women was needed but was beyond the capabilities of this small group to provide such a facility.

John Caldwell said at the meeting to inaugurate the Sydney City Mission, that from the Sunday breakfast for the poor meetings, ‘The leaven had been at work, and from these Sunday morning breakfasts had emanated the idea of the city mission.’[64] This should probably be regarded as an enthusiastic overstatement of the importance of the role of the SMB. There was an awareness among many of the plight of the homeless poor and of the poor in general. The SMB and the City Mission commencing in April 1862 and July 1862 respectively and the call for a refuge  in July 1862 were all part of this view that something needed to be done to help the homeless poor. Men like Armstrong, Lucas, Winter, Short and Voller and others were involved in the discussions for these provisions to assist the homeless poor. A B Armstrong, however, was a key initiator, sustainer and had a life-long involvement in the ministry to the poor in Sydney through the SMB and the SNRR in particular. He also gave his support to Benjamin Short’s initiation of the City Mission and served on its governance committee, chaired public meetings and spoke at its events.[65] The SMB and SNRR should be regarded as part, albeit an important part, of the confluence of interest that together with the temperance movement gave rise to the Sydney City Mission.

Andrew Bell Armstrong, a successful businessman and temperance advocate, originated the SMB for the poor and out of this movement came the ‘Francis Street Refuge and Reformatory’. These ministries were an important contributor to the impetus to form the Sydney City Mission.[66]

Dr Paul F Cooper

Research Fellow Christ College, Sydney


The appropriate way to cite this article is as follows:

Paul F Cooper. Andrew Bell Armstrong (1811-1872) Founder of the Sunday Morning Breakfast for the Poor Philanthropy and Philanthropists in Australian Colonial History  Available at

 


[1] Sydney Morning Herald (SMH), 19 June 1872, 1.

[2] Mr and Mrs T Iredale arrived at Port Phillip 10 December 1842 on the Posthumous. It would appear that their son Robert and wife Sarah, daughter Barbara and family also arrived on the same ship.  SMH, 26 December 1842, 2; Sydney Mail, 28 November 1863, 1. Armstrong in his will identifies Sarah Buzacott (nee Iredale) as his step daughter. Will of Andrew Bell Armstrong.

[3] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1866, 5.

[4] Armstrong said he had been in the army 13 years which would make his year of enlistment around 1831 assuming he left in 1844 when the Regiment left for India. Illawarra Mercury (Wollongong, NSW), 5 July 1861, 2.

[5] SMH, 1 July 1844, 2.

[6] The Weekly Register of Politics, Facts and General Literature (Sydney, NSW), 17 August 1844, 80; https://wiki.fibis.org/w/80th_Regiment_of_Foot> [accessed 6/1//2020]

[7] SMH, 9 May 1849, 2. 

[8] SMH, 1 July 1844, 2.

[9] Illawarra Mercury (Wollongong, NSW), 5 July 1861, 2.

[10]  Hawkesbury Courier and Agricultural and General Advertiser (Windsor, NSW), 22 August 1844, 2.

[11] 20 July 1844. Certificate of Marriage, Andrew Bell Armstrong and Barbara Iredale 20 July 1844, NSW Births, Deaths and Marriages.

[12] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1866, 5.

[13] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1866, 5.

[14] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1866, 5.

[15] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 3 July 1861, 4.

[16] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1866, 5.

[17] Sydney Mail (NSW), 19 November 1870, 5.

[18] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1866, 5.

[19] SMH, 28 August 1869, 1.

[20]SMH, 25 February 1870, 5. 

[21] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 20 August 1861, 5; Sydney Mail (NSW), 30 August 1862, 2.

[22] Sydney Mail (NSW), 30 August 1862, 2.

[23] SMH, 9 January 1856, 2.  

[24] Sydney Mail (NSW), 24 October 1868, 5.

[25] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 9 December 1862, 8.

[26] SMH, 19 June 1872, 10.

[27] The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (Maitland, NSW), 6 December 1851, 1; The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 11 March 1826, 4.

[28] The Colonist (Sydney, NSW), 1 July 1840, 3.

[29] The Sydney Herald, 17 November 1841, 3.

[30] The Sydney Herald, 10 February 1842, 3.

[31] The Colonial Observer (Sydney, NSW), 16 February 1842, 7.

[32] SMH, 4 March 1842, 1.

[33] SMH, 16 August 1850, 3. Robert Iredale, Edward Fletcher (d. December 1854) and Frederic Lessetter (son in law of Launcelot m 1852); SMH, 13 December 1852, 3; Empire (Sydney, NSW), 29 December 1854, 4.

[34] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 3 March 1858, 1.

[35] SMH, 21 June 1937, 11; The Land (Sydney, NSW), 3 November 1933, 10.

[36] Paul F Cooper. The Commencement of the Young Men’s Christian Association, Sydney (YMCA). Philanthropy and Philanthropists in Australian Colonial History, July 25, 2015. Available at https://phinaucohi.wordpress.com/2015/07/25/the-commencement-of-the-young-mens-christian-association-sydney-ymca/

[37] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 13 February 1863, 5; https://colonialgivers.com/2015/07/25/the-commencement-of-the-young-mens-christian-association-sydney-ymca/

[38] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1863, 5.

[39] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 22 June 1872, 3.

[40] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1863, 5. As this is the only newspaper account to refer to the group in this way, it may well be that the journalist who wrote this report misheard and the group was call ‘Try Company’ not ‘Fry Company’. The journalist’s report is predated by a lengthy and humorous article by “Old Boomerang”, the non-de-plume for John Richard Houlding, written  in November 1862 but not published until January 1863 in the Sydney Mail (NSW), 10 January 1863, 2. It’s centred on the group of individuals being willing ‘To Try’ to help and as such they are, he said, the ‘Try Company’ and he wished ‘God speed to the Try Company’ and he encourages others to engage in such works. Should anyone doubt the possibility to reclaim such people, ‘he would mildly, but emphatically, say, Try’. Methodist (Sydney, NSW), 3 August 1906, 2; 11 July 1914, 8.

[41] SMH, 13 May 1864, 5.

[42] Sydney Mail, 18 August 1866, 2.

[43] SMH, 13 May 1864, 5; Vilma Page, ‘Lucas, Mary Ann (1826–1900)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/lucas-mary-ann-13057/text23611, published first in hardcopy 2005, accessed online 12 November 2020.

[44] Freeman’s Journal (Sydney, NSW), 24 June 1871, 10; Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (Maitland, NSW), 4 May 1876, 4.

[45] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1863, 5.

[46] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 13 February 1863, 5.

[47] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 July 1866, 5.

[48] Methodist (Sydney, NSW), 11 July 1914, 8.

[49] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 30 July 1862, 8.

[50] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 9 April 1862, 4; The Protestant Standard (Sydney, NSW), 8 July 1871, 2.

[51] The Sentinel (Sydney, NSW), 28 October 1847, 2; SMH, 9 May 1849, 2; Empire (Sydney, NSW), 14 January 1869, 2.

[52] Sydney Mail (NSW), 27 May 1865, 7.

[53] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 21 May 1862, 2. 

[54] SMH, 20 April 1878, 5.

[55] Sydney Mail (NSW), 19 December 1868, 5.

[56] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 13 February 1863, 5.

[57] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 9 April 1862, 4. 

[58] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 4 April 1863, 5.

[59] Sydney Mail (NSW), 7 June 1862, 8.

[60] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 29 March 1863, 4; 27 October 1863, 4. 

[61] SMH, 7 April 1864, 8.

[62] Sydney Mail (NSW), 18 August 1866, 2; however, an advertisement in 1865 would indicate the formation of the charity as a public one was 12 months in June 1864. Empire (Sydney, NSW), 25 June 1864, 1.

[63] Sydney Mail (NSW), 18 August 1866, 2.

[64] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 14 July 1862, 8.

[65] Sydney Mail (NSW), 1 June 1867, 5; 17 September 1870, 5; Empire (Sydney, NSW), 15 April 1868, 2; SMH, 12 June 1869, 6.

[66]  The City Mission was formed on 10 July 1862.  Empire (Sydney, NSW), 14 July, 1862, 8

 

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