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George Collison Tuting (1814-1892)

an aspiring but ordinary nineteenth-century colonist

George Collison Tuting was not an outstanding figure in nineteenth-century NSW. Coming to the colony he hoped to better himself and his family in the drapery business which was a trade he knew well. On arrival he was socially well connected through marriage to the Farmer family (Farmers & Co). He was welcomed into the Pitt Street Congregational Church’s merchant circle (including G A Lloyd, Alfred Fairfax, David Jones) and while he had great aspirations he failed to convert them into business success. His early philanthropic endeavours were quickly extinguished by his failure in business; bankruptcy does not enhance one’s ability to be philanthropic.  In the latter phase of his life, having obtained a certain level of financial stability, he gave of his time to help organize various philanthropic activities mostly promoting spiritual engagement.

Tuting was born in Beverley, Yorkshire, England, in January 1814 and was the son of Jeremiah Tuting, variously a cordwainer (shoemaker) and sexton of St Marys’ Church, Beverley, and Sarah Collison.[1] In 1841, George married Eliza Bolton (1817-1847) and they had 5 children: William Collison (1841-1918), George Bolton (1843-1843), Eliza Bolton Kent (1844-1883), Emily Sarah Parsons (1846-1924) and Henry Gutteridge (1847-1847). Eliza died in March 1847[2] and on 9 February 1848, George married Mary Petford nee Farmer (1804-1868), the widow of Jason Petford, a draper in Brierley Hill. Mary and Jason, had married in 1827[3]  and had two daughters: Mary (1834-1858) and Amelia (1843–1928).

The Tuting family left England 8 November 1849, on the Prince of Wales and arrived in Sydney on 21 February 1850. The family group consisted of George and his wife Mary and George’s son William, his daughters Eliza and Emily, his nephew Thomas Shires Tuting together with Mary’s two daughters, Mary and Amelia.[4]

In England

George was a draper and his first shop was in the Market Place, Beverley, and while it is unknown when he began business, the first evidence of its existing is from 10 April 1840 when he sought to commend his goods to the public through the distribution of printed hand bills.[5] He was a religious man who, when advertising for staff, made a point of indicating that ‘a man of piety will be preferred’[6] and when seeking an apprentice gave the assurance that his ‘Moral and Religious training will be strictly attended to, as well as receiving a thorough knowledge of the Business.’[7] He was, as a churchman, a Congregationalist attending the Independent Chapel, Beverley, and later at Brierley Hill.[8]

It would appear that George was interested in missions, financially supporting a young Indian man from 1846-1849 so that he could undergo training for ministry at Bangalore, India.[9] He also gave money to a Medical Institution[10] and towards the building of a Mission College in Hong Kong.[11] The Missionary Magazine and Chronicle, a publication mostly concentrating on the work of the London Missionary Society, was itself largely supported by Independent Churches. That his financial support of missions was recorded in this publication is consistent with his churchmanship being congregational.

George was active in civic affairs and in 1845 he was appointed as one of two Overseers for the parish of St Mary’s, Beverley.[12] The Overseers were responsible for administering parish assistance to meet  the needs of the poor, collecting the poor tax from parish members, helping to distribute ‘outdoor relief’ (usually money or food), and for supervising the local parish poorhouse.[13] He was also a director of the Beverley Mechanics’ Institute.[14] After marrying Mary Petford in 1848, George moved to Wordsley, Kingswinford, and had a draper’s shop in High Street, Brierley Hill, Staffordshire.[15] He became involved with this community through his participation in the Working Men’s Land and Building Society becoming its president.[16]

By August 1849, he had decided to dispose of his drapery business and emigrate with his family to Australia.[17] Why he did so is unknown, but a family connection probably explains the decision. Mary, George’s second wife, was the sister of Joseph Farmer who had arrived in Sydney in 1839[18] and on 21 September 1840, Joseph had begun a drapery business which was eventually to become known as Farmer and Co.[19] Thus it was that the Tutings had strong family connections in Sydney who were successfully engaged in the drapery business.

Commercial Journal and Advertiser 12 September 1840, 3

In Australia

In Sydney, George followed a similar pattern of activities to those he had followed in England. He set up a drapery shop, joined a Congregational Church and demonstrated an interest in missions.

G C Tuting – A New Drapery Establishment

A little more than a month after arriving, George commenced his business in temporary premises at 243 George Street, Sydney. The public were informed that he had on sale the ‘truly magnificent stock of every article connected with the Drapery, Silk Mercery, Hosiery, Haberdashery Trade, &c’[20] which he had brought with him on the ‘Prince of Wales’. Before describing his stock in detail, there was an extensive advertisement in which he stated his business principles:

G C Tuting is most desirous of impressing the minds of the public, that it is not by vain and empty pretensions he asks for or expects support, it being his fixed determination to conduct his business on those sound and straightforward  principles which have secured to the leading houses in London such an enviable reputation.[21]

He followed up this statement by pointing out that the stock he had for sale had been personally selected by him and paid for, in cash, and that this would ‘prevent him being under-sold by any other house’.

By August, his new premises were ready for occupation but he indicated that he would need to ‘greatly expand and modify his new premises’ when the Spring Importations arrived. He both saved advertising costs and flattered potential customers indicating that:

G.C.T. having great aversion to placarding the walls of the city or filling the newspapers with names and figures of Goods, which in this enlightened age must be insulting the intelligence of the community, would simply state, that on and after Monday, the 20th instant, a REDUCTION OF 10 PER CENT will be allowed on all bills of parcels from TEN SHILLINGS UPWARDS.[22]

When the Spring Importations arrived, Tuting had overcome his ‘great aversion’ for he paid for one whole column of advertising in the Sydney Morning Herald pointing out that he had ‘the LARGEST, the CHEAPEST, and the most ELEGANT STOCK ever submitted to the Ladies of New South Wales’. He informed the Ladies that he had made arrangements to have regular monthly shipment of select goods. The sophistication and scope of such goods was suggested having been purchased by manufactures in Vienna, Lyons, Paris, London, Manchester, Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfeld, Norwich and Luton. As someone who said he had a ‘great aversion to the too common practice of PUFFING’ he was not shy of promoting the great virtues and superiority of his drapery business beyond anything that Sydney had yet seen.[23] It appears there were a significant number of drapery businesses in Sydney and that competition was keen.

In order to establish his business, Tuting sought to provide a wide range of goods and services related to the drapery business; all manner of materials, clothing, dresses, shawls, and millinery, the latter being under the direction of Mary Tuting.[24] He even had a ‘MOURNING ESTABLISHMENT’ through which he was able to ‘undertake and supply funerals throughout, having Hearse, Mourning Coaches &c’. In addition he supplied mourning clothes ‘of the newest style and fabric’.[25]

Empire (Sydney, NSW), 7 February 1856, 5

Initially when opening his store, Tuting had said his goods had been purchased for cash, but over time and by early 1852, he had started to become indebted to his English suppliers and by October 1854 he owed one supplier £6,125 ($440,500, in 2020 value).[26] In the 1850s, trade had slowed and was ‘dull’. No doubt to assist in cash flow issues he took in two partners, James Charles Cozens and Richard Glynn Vallack, both former employees,[27] and the company became Tuting & Co; he also extensively renovated his premises.[28] As part of the partnership arrangement Tuting maintained the right to import goods which were then on-sold to the partnership. In the future, this arrangement would become the source of a lengthy litigation, seeking to establish just who was responsible for the debt incurred through imports that were on sale at Tuting & Co. Was it Tuting’s personal debt or was it the debt of the company,  Tuting & Co?[29]

In the midst of this challenging time, Tuting became involved with a group who were interested in forming a shipping line to carry passengers between Sydney and Melbourne. The group consisted of himself, R M Robey, G A Loyd, E C Weekes and Alfred Fairfax, and together they formed a private company known as the Sydney and Melbourne Steam Packet Company (SMSPC), and in June 1853 they purchased the Hellespont for £23,000.[30] In January 1854, SMSPC became a public company of which Tuting was a director and it quickly acquired other ships and property.[31] Initially, the company was very successful but through some misfortune, over ambitious expansion and the commissioning of an expensive steamer that did not meet expectations, it got into financial trouble. Because the end of the Crimea War resulted in a decrease in the demand for shipping, the ailing SMSPC was not able sell its ships profitably and so the company floundered and was dissolved in December 1855.[32] In the collapse of this venture Tuting had lost several thousand pounds. Meanwhile, Tuting & Co and Tuting himself had become insolvent with an overall net debt of £32, 451 ($2,315,048 in 2020). Declared insolvent, the company was placed under sequestration on 10 December 1855[33] and the partnership dissolved. 

Tuting was an early shareholder in the Carangara Copper Mining Company (CCMC), which was formed in 1853 by a group of six. By 1858, this group had expanded to 20 and the CCMC planned to issue 10,000 shares in the colony and 10,000 in London. This step was necessary as the CCMC required a large amount of capital to develop the mine and this investment would not have given Tuting any significant financial return. Indeed, calls on the shareholders would have placed him under financial pressure. In later times, he personally held some mining leases, probably for gold but nothing seems to have eventuated from these investments.[34]

Tuting sought a Certificate of Discharge in March 1856 in order to resume business as Tuting & Co, but it was not immediately granted. He did, however, return to business in November 1856 at Beverley House, 118-120 Pitt Street but by August 1860 he had ceased trading and indicated he was ‘retiring from business and proceeding to the interior’. All the stock of Beverley House was sold as well as his expensive household furniture and goods.[35]

It would seem that by 1860 Tuting had acquired enough capital or perhaps the support of the Farmer family in order to leave Sydney and become a pastoralist which was the next phase of his life.


Mary Tuting’s youngest daughter Amelia was married to Alfred Allen in 1861 at Geurie Station, Macquarie River, near Wellington, NSW.[36] Geurie was a property leased and later bought by G C Tuting (perhaps with the help of the Farmer family) which he stocked with stud merinos purchased from the Havilah Station.[37] Tuting also had two other properties in the district, Minore (30 miles from Geurie) purchased in 1866 under the pre-emptive right of the Robertson Land Act of 1861, and Barrabadeen Station purchased at a Government land sale.[38]

In 1868, he successfully conducted trials in growing sugar beet. His crops produced high yields and he expressed the view that sugar beet would be a more profitable crop than that which was currently grown by farmers in the area. Refining sugar beet syrup and granulating it was necessary in order to produce the sugar and Tuting was actively seeking information as how this value-adding process could enhance a grower’s financial return.[39] By his example and advocacy he encouraged others to grow the crop, but he does not seem to have pursued planting significant acreage himself in order to prove the viability of the crop.[40]

The nature of the ownership, as well as the extent and identity of the properties, is rather vague and confusing. Sometime in 1862, A H McCulloch transferred the lease for Geurie to Tuting.[41] In 1864, Tuting transferred the lease to James Byrnes and William Byrnes who then immediately transferred the lease to William Farmer and Richard Painter. In 1867, Geurie, Minore and Barrabadine were placed on the market. It was said that it was the ‘owner’s intention to relinquish pastoral pursuits’ but no sale took place.[42] Then in 1868, Farmer and Painter exercised the pre-emptive right and purchased Geurie.[43] Tuting remained resident until 1873 when once again the properties were placed on the market[44] and purchased by H S Burns and A K Mackenzie, probably in June 1874.[45] This all seems to suggest that Tuting may not have owned Geurie or did not do so for very long. He may have been acting as manager firstly for McCulloch then later for Famer and Painter. Geurie was regarded as a small sheep station and one of which no-one, including Tuting, was able to make a success.[46]

From time to time while living in the country he would conduct worship services in the Dubbo Town Hall.[47] He also made his property available to entertain groups of children from the Ponto School, Wellington, which was separated from his property by the Macquarie River.[48] On his leaving the district in 1874, he was presented with an address and a silver engraved inkstand which said it was ‘expressive of the esteem in which he [was] held by the residents of the district, their regret of the prospect of his leaving them, and their good wishes for his future welfare’.[49] What part he had played in the local community to deserve such recognition is unknown.

Congregational Church

Tuting was a member of Congregational (or Independent) churches both in England and in Australia. In Sydney he joined the Pitt Street Congregational Church and was involved in the London Missionary Society giving an impassioned speech that gained the ‘Loud cheers’ of his audience:

… with their hearts and purses full, the people of Sydney would never consent that Erromanga and the rest of that group should be abandoned to heathenism: they would never allow that the crimson seed sown by John Williams should be thrown to the winds. (Loud cries of hear.) He (Mr. T) was prepared to state that three earnest hearts in that congregation had agreed to contribute the sum of £300 to carry out the necessary arrangements for establishing missions to the western islands, on condition that the same amount was subscribed by other members of the congregation and friends of the Missionary Society. (Loud cheers.) He, Mr Tuting, therefore made an earnest appeal to all, whether their circumstances enabled them to subscribe £1, or 10s., or 5s., to assist to the utmost in the great work in which the Missionary societies were engaged.[50]

On 26 July 1853, Tuting became a founding member of the Congregational Church Building Society of New South Wales whose purpose was to raise funds to buy land and build churches and chapels. Members of this founding group included such wealthy men as John Fairfax, Ambrose Foss, David Jones, G A Lloyd, Alfred Fairfax and Samuel Thompson. At its first meeting the individuals of the Committee of management, showing their commitment to the task, had pledged a combined sum of ‘nearly £7000 … payable by means of promissory notes at thee, six, nine, and twelve months date.’[51] Tuting was reappointed to the committee in 1854 but not at its next meeting in 1857.[52] No doubt he could no longer afford the £5 annual contribution that the Committee members were required to make.

While Tuting had, during his financial problems, withdrawn from office in various organisations he clearly remained involved with the Pitt Street Congregational Church. In May 1860, he chaired a meeting of the Juvenile Foreign Missionary Society of the Pitt Street Church. In so doing, alluding in part to his more recent low public profile, he commented that he ‘had not presided over a missionary meeting for a long time’ and that since he had done so ‘there were  many who had gone from this world; and he had no doubt they had gone to heaven’.[53]

 Charitable and Philanthropic Organisations

Tuting served in a governance role on the Bethel Union Committee of Management 1853-1855[54] as well as those of the Congregational Missionary Society 1852-1855;[55] British and Foreign Bible Society 1854;[56] Australian Religious Tract and Book Society 1854-1855;[57] and the London Missionary Society 1853-1855.[58] Each of these memberships were short-lived and almost all terminated around 1855 which was the exact time his financial troubles would have become very public. Tuting may have been so busy trying to save his business that he did not have the time to give to these organisations. Perhaps the shame he may have felt among his peers, and/or the inappropriateness of serving on management committees of these charities when he himself was failing in business, may have contributed to the termination of this aspect of his life.

Absent in country New South Wales from 1861, it seems that because of distance and his isolation Tuting took little or no part in any organizational activity. This, however, did not preclude his encouraging Christian ministry to those in the ‘bush’. The Bush Missionary Society received this letter from Tuting:

I have twice visited Dubbo and Wellington since your esteemed agent, Mr. John Wilson, was there, and I feel constrained to drop you a line to inform you that his labours have been attended with good. Wherever I go Mr. Wilson is inquired for, and hope expressed that his visits will soon be renewed, and I cannot doubt for a moment but that his labours have been greatly blessed at both places. I greatly admire his Christian character, and his ready tact in the work to which you have devoted him. Oh! That you would send a score of such men. Such agency is admirably adapted for the bush. I wish the committee could take a tour of about 500 miles in the interior, as I am quite sure both money and men would then be readily found; for it is most heartrending to witness the ignorance and wickedness of the people.[59]

Second Phase of Organisational Activity

On Tuting’s retirement from pastoral pursuits he took a holiday and travelled to England. Departing 6 June 1874 on the RMS Tartar he travelled to San Francisco where he took passage to New York and from thence on 8 August boarded the White Star Line ship ‘Baltic’, arriving in Liverpool around 17 August 1874.[60] After twelve months overseas, he arrived back in Sydney in June 1875[61] and began another phase of his life with involvement in the organizational side of various charitable organisations.

Tuting’s Second Phase of Charitable Activity

1875-1880 YMCA presides at Prayer Meeting 1875, joint secretary 1877, delivers an address 1878, member of executive until 1880.[62]

1877 Chairs meeting of Bush Missionary Society.[63]

1877 Involved with Pitt Street Congregational Sabbath School – collection for family of Mr and Mrs Bliss (composer of children’s hymns).[64]

1877 Joint Secretary United Evangelistic Committee.[65]

1878 Joint Secretary Mid-day Prayer Meetings.[66]

1878 Joint Hon Treasurer Mr Varley’s Evangelistic Mission.[67]

1879-1880 Member of Committee Maloga Aboriginal Mission, 1879-1880 and February 1880 chairs meetings.[68]

1881-1888 Member Aboriginal Protection Society.[69]

1882 Joint Secretary Conference for promoting revival.[70]

1885 Sunday Trains (Syd-Mt Vic) deputation to Minister for Works.[71]

1885 Home of Hope Committee.[72]

1885 Blue Ribbon Gospel Army – addresses meeting.[73]

1885 Rev J and Mrs Mountain’s Mission – member of Executive Committee.[74]

Association for the Protection of Aborigines in New South Wales

One of the most interesting of Tuting’s involvements in philanthropic work concerned the welfare of Aboriginals. This concern was most probably initiated through his pastoral involvement in the Wellington Dubbo area for more than a decade; he had lived and worked on the land from 1861-1874. He had been member of the Maloga Aboriginal Mission Committee from its commencement in 1878 and served until 1880. He continued this membership when the scope of the work was widened by joining with other interested parties to become the Association for the Protection of Aborigines in New South Wales (APS).[75] As chairman of a public meeting of the APS, Tuting had a number of enlightened sentiments which displayed some understanding of the effect of colonization upon the Aboriginals when he said: 

We had, as Britons, taken their all from them, and had occupied the land for some ninety years, and he would ask what we had given in return? The aborigines had a claim upon us; … When he thought of their being neglected for so many years he really felt ashamed of the colony that nothing had been done for their benefit. The time had now arrived for action, and they had met in Council in order to take the part of the blacks. They intended to band themselves together for their assistance, because they believed it to be incumbent upon them as Britons and as Christians.[76]

He maintained involvement and attended annual meetings of the APS in 1887 and 1888.[77]


George Collison Tuting, was not a significant figure in colonial NSW. He was not a great success in business despite his aspiration to be so. He was, however, one of the many who contributed to the colony’s development in small and useful, if unspectacular, ways.

Dr Paul F Cooper

Research Fellow Christ College, Sydney

The appropriate way to cite this article is as follows:

Paul F Cooper. George Collison Tuting (1814-1892) an aspiring but ordinary nineteenth-century colonist

Available at

[1] 5 January 1814 Saint Mary and Saint Nicholas, Beverley, York, England England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014. Original data: England, Births and Christenings, 1538-1975. Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch, 2013.

[2] 20 March 1847, March 26, 1847 Hull Packet (Hull, England) Issue: 3244.

[3] 29 August 1827 Halesowen, Worcester, England. England, Select Marriages, 1538–1973 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014.Original data: England, Marriages, 1538–1973. Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch, 2013.

[4] The Tutings on their arrival are listed as: Mr G C Tuting, Mrs Mary Tuting, Masters Thomas and William Tuting, Miss Eliza Tuting. SMH, 22 February 1850, 2. The Tutings are listed on the ship’s passenger list as “G C Tuting Wife 2 Sons and 3 Daughters, Mary Petford.” New South Wales, Australia, Unassisted Immigrant Passenger Lists, 1826-1922 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2007.

[5] As he was 26 in 1840 and as he probably served an apprenticeship before opening the shop he probably did not enter business much before 1840.

[6] The Hull Packet (Hull England), October 29, 1841, Issue 2967.

[7] York Herald (York, England), April 10, 1847, Issue: 3887.

[8] Hull Packet (Hull, England), February 18, 1848, Issue: 3291, his wedding to Mary Petford was carried out by an Independent Minister in the Independent Chapel at Brierley Hill. Marriage Certificate George Collison Tuting and Mary Petford 3546800-1 9 February 1848.

[9] ‘Autobiography of G C Tuting’s Student’, Missionary Magazine and Chronicle; Relating Chiefly to the Missions of the London Missionary Society (London, England), February 1846, 59.

[10] Missionary Magazine and Chronicle; Relating Chiefly to the Missions of the London Missionary Society (London, England) March 1, 1847, Volume: XI, Issue: CXXX.

[11] The Hull Packet (Hull England), February 18, 1848, Issue: 3291.

[12] The Hull Packet (Hull England), April 4, 1845, Issue: 3146.


[14] The Hull Packet (Hull England), February 4, 1848, Issue: 3289.

[15] UK, Midlands and Various UK Trade Directories, 1770-1941 [database on-line].

Original data: Midlands Historical Data collection of Trade Directories. Tony Abrahams.

Midlands Trade Directories 1770–1941. Midlands Historical Data, Solihull, West Midlands.

[16] Worcestershire Chronicle (Worcester, England), August 22, 1849, Volume: XII, Issue: 608.

[17] Worcestershire Chronicle (Worcester, England), August 15, 1849, Volume: XII, Issue: 607.

[18] 30 March 1839 aboard the Royal Saxon. The Sydney Herald (NSW), 1 April 1839, 2.

[19] Commercial Journal and Advertiser (Sydney, NSW), 12 September 1840, 3;SMH, 16 October 1850, 3;  G. P. Walsh, ‘Farmer, Sir William (1832–1908)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,, published first in hardcopy 1972, accessed online 27 May 2021.

[20] SMH, 9 April 1850, 1.

[21] SMH, 9 April 1850, 1.

[22] SMH, 29 July 1850, 3. 

[23] SMH, 16 October 1850, 3. 

[24] SMH, 8 September 1852, 3.

[25] SMH, 30 August 1851, 5.

[26] SMH, 26 April 1856, 4.Around 1853 he had bought and quickly sold ‘”Euroka” for £1,500 .profit. [accessed 15/8/2021].

[27] New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW), 24 September 1858 [Issue No.146], 1548.

[28] SMH, 26 July 1855, 8; Empire (Sydney, NSW), 10 September 1855, 2.

[29] SMH, 26 April 1856, 4; 12 August 1857, 2.

[30] The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW), 18 June 1853, 2; The Shipping Gazette and Sydney General Trade List, 25 June 1853, 190.

[31] Empire, (Sydney, NSW), 1 May 1854, 5.

[32] SMH, 10 February 1854, 2. 

[33] New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW), 11 December 1855 [Issue No.173], 3258; SMH, 8 December 1855, 5.

[34] New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW), 7 December 1875, [Issue No.328], 3946; Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW), 17 February 1877, 34. 

[35] SMH, 15 December 1856, 8; 20 Aug 1860, 7. 

[36] SMH, 17 Sep 1861, 1.

[37] Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative (NSW), 13 May 1920, 3.

[38]  New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW), 3 August 1866 [Issue No.150 (SUPPLEMENT)], 1825; SMH, 16 February 1867, 10.

[39] He sent a letter to the Orange Farmers Association asking how to granulate beet syrup. Sydney Mail (NSW), 23 May 1868, 14.

[40] Sydney Mail (NSW), 2 May 1868, 14. 

[41] New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW), 13 January 1863 [Issue No.8 (SUPPLEMENT)], 96.

[42] SMH, 13 March 1867, 7.

[43] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 15 July 1868, 4; New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW), 21 April 1868 [Issue No.94], 1119. It was valued at £321. That Mary Tuting died on 20th June 1868 at Geurie a month before Farmer and Painter purchased Geurie is suggestive.

[44] SMH, 16 February 1867, 10; 14 October 1873, 7. In the advertisement for sale used the word ‘proprietor’ rather than “owner” in saying that he lived on site. Is this significant.

[45] New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW), 20 June 1874 [Issue No.145 (SUPPLEMENT)], 1846. 

[46] Wellington Times (NSW), 11 October 1937, 4; Dubbo Dispatch and Wellington Independent (NSW), 9 April 1897, 3; probably, with his son William, then took up New Marthaguy Station in 1875 but this was soon sold in 1876. Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW), 4 September 1875, 31; Wagga Wagga Advertiser (NSW), 1 November 1876, 3.

[47] The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate (NSW), 27 February 1914, 7.

[48] The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW), 28 February 1874, 281.

[49] SMH, 24 April 1874, 4.

[50] SMH, 19 January 1853, 2.

[51] SMH, 7 June 1854, 2.

[52]  SMH,  7 June 1854,  2;  8 June 1857, 5.

[53] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 16 May 1860, 5.

[54] Empire (Sydney, NSW), 19 January 1853, 3; 2 February 1854, 5; SMH, 23 January 1855, 4.

[55] SMH, 21 July 1852, 2; 27 July 1853, 3; 12 October 1854, 5; 23 October 1855, 5.

[56] SMH, 18 January 1854, 5. 

[57] SMH, 22 February 1854, 3; 29 May 1855, 5.

[58] It would seem his membership of the LMS in Sydney began in 1853 SMH, 19 January 1853, 2; 26 April 1854, 3; 12 June 1855, 5.

[59] SMH, 9 August 1864, 5.

[60] 18 August, 1874 Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser (Manchester, England) Volume: L, Issue: 5544.

[61] South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA), 24 June 1875, 4.

[62] SMH, 17 Jul 1875, 1; 29 December 1877, 1; 17 September 1877, 4; Moore’s Australian Almanac and Handbook for 1878 (J J Moore, 1878); SMH, 10 February 1880, 3.

[63] SMH, 16 January 1877, 4. 

[64] SMH, 21 April 1877, 1. 

[65] SMH, 12 October 1877, 1. 

[66] SMH, 28 September 1878, 1. 

[67] SMH, 26 October 1878, 15. 

[68] SMH, 27 November 1879, 6; 16 February 1880, 1. 

[69] Report of the New South Wales Aborigines Protection Association, June 30th, 1881.

[70] SMH, 1 September 1882, 1. 

[71]  SMH, 20 January 1885, 7.

[72] SMH, 21 February 1885, 5. 

[73] SMH, 2 May 1885, 3. 

[74] SMH, 16 Jun 1885, 12. 

[75] The Argus (Melbourne, Vic), 29 May 1890, 8.

[76] SMH, 17 February 1880, 6.

[77] SMH, 6 April 1887, 9; 16 March 1888, 5. 

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