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John Thomas Neale (1823-1897) and Hannah Maria Bull (1825-1911) Financial Philanthropists

John Thomas Neale died in Sydney in 1897 leaving an estate valued for probate at £804,945 ($12.2m current value)[1] and in his will he made significant bequests to his wife Hannah as well as to family members and others. He also left some £18,500 ($2.8m current value) to various charitable organisations. As significant as these charitable bequests were, they were far exceeded by those made by his wife. Some 14 years after John’s death, Hannah died with an estate valued for probate at £758,997 ($13.9m current value) and she left some £47,500 ($5.7m current value) to various charities and the remainder of her estate to family and friends.

John Thomas Neale

Who were John and Hannah Neale?

John Thomas Neal was born at Denham Court, Campbelltown, NSW, in 1823 to John Neale (1897-1875) an overseer and later a carcass butcher, and his wife Sarah Lee (1799-1855). John Thomas was one of 14 children; 12 lived to adulthood and in 1843, at the time of the birth of his youngest sibling, 10 still lived in the family home.   John Thomas, the second son, married Hannah Maria Bull (1825-1911) the daughter of John and Elizabeth Mary Bull of Bull’s Hill, Liverpool, in August 1843; she was 18 and John 20 and they were never able to have children. John died at his Potts Point home, Lugarno, in September 1897, aged 74[2] and Hannah died at Lugarno in March 1911, aged 86.[3]

Hannah Maria Neale

Business Interests

John commenced building his fortune in the livestock trade following in his already wealthy father’s footsteps. Commencing initially in the Monaro district working on his father’s leased pastoral run Middlebank, he soon returned to Sydney to become a carcass butcher in his father’s business in Sussex Street.[4]

As a carcass butcher, John would attend different cattle markets and purchase cattle or sheep. This required considerable skill and knowledge as there were no facilities for weighing the livestock and the carcass butcher needed to be able to estimate the weight and quality from an animal’s size and appearance. When the animal was killed, skinned and dressed, the carcass butcher would then sell it to a retail butcher.[5]

In the nineteenth century, livestock were driven to Sydney across the Blue Mountains for sale in Sydney. Instead of waiting for the stock to arrive at the sale yards as other carcass butchers did Neale, in partnership with other enterprising young men, on hearing their probable date of arrival, would ride a day or two’s journey and meet the drovers. The potential buyers would band together and purchase the livestock on the spot, thereby restricting the supply to the other older more established carcass butchers, which enabled them to sell at a profit to the Sydney-based carcass butchers.[6] With the capital John acquired over many years of this business, he purchased land and became a large property owner, also leasing pastoral runs and raising cattle and sheep for the meat market.

To facilitate his business as a carcass butcher, Neale also owned and ran a slaughter house which was initially owned by his father at 108 Parramatta Street, Sydney, on a creek flowing into Blackwattle Bay. Offal from their works, along with effluent from other businesses, turned pristine waters into a putrid swamp.[7] In 1860, in response to public complaint, all slaughterhouses were removed from the then city area by order of the government. This had the desired effect as it was noted by the press that

The removal of the slaughterhouses from Sussex-street and from Blackwattle Swamp has already effected great improvement in those parts of the city, both in doing away with the offensive and noxious odour arising from the operations, and also in pre-venting the frequent accidents which have arisen from the escape of infuriated cattle from the yards.[8]

Some idea of the extent of his pastoral activities, which in part provided stock for his butchery business, can be seen from his lease holdings in a 12-month period, 1866. Below is a Table of just some of his leased properties for that year and he clearly had others not here listed.[9]

Some of the leased properties in New South Wales occupied by J T Neal in 1866[10]

Livestock and rural properties were not his only property interests as he also owned many properties in the city of Sydney. In 1896, he owned some 90 properties, 75% were houses and 24% were shops with less than 1% being land. Neale invested in income-producing holdings that produced for him significant rents. He also, unlike his father, owned several public houses from 1861 until 1863 and probably for much longer.[11] At one time, he owned the Prince of Wales Theatre and the block of buildings in which it stood and was its mortgagee when it burnt down.[12] He also invested in various companies being the largest shareholder in the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney, a large shareholder in the bank of New South Wales, the United Insurance Company, Richardson and Wrench and many other financial institutions.[13]

Neale was involved in numerous partnerships of a commercial nature such as in Peisley and Neale in stock purchases[14] and in a Wool Scouring Works at Collingwood, Liverpool, in conjunction with JH Atkinson.[15] In 1848 Neale, in partnership with others, sought to develop the iron ore (Limonite) deposits at the Ironstone Bridge, Mittagong, proceeding to commence smelting operations.[16] A company was formed in September 1851 but Neale, perhaps not convinced of financial return from the venture, did not become a shareholder. In the longer term, his decision proved to be correct.[17]

Eventually, Neale focussed on becoming a financier or money lender and through this role he became very wealthy. As one trusted friend said of him ‘he could not help making money’[18]and is meant to have commented to a friend that ‘he could live very comfortably upon the interest of his interest’.[19] With an underdeveloped banking system, private financier’s such as Neale could carry on a significant business. He lent large amounts of money to Municipal Councils for infrastructure works such as £1,000 to the Waratah Council, £10,000 to the West Botany Council,[20] £4,500 to East Maitland for the development of gas works,[21] and £10,000 to Paddington Council to pay off other loans.[22] A significant number of these loans by Neale were through a tender process so his terms must have been very competitive. Significantly, he was able to take advantage of the economic downturn in the 1890s and lent to various municipal councils. He no doubt also loaned for private mortgages, but these only came to public attention when, through default, court action was required for debt recovery.[23] At his death, he was one of the largest municipal debenture holders in the colony[24] and was said, probably with some exaggeration, to have held a thousand mortgages.[25]

Some of JT Neal’s Municipal Loans during the 1890s


Neale was interested in cricket and he and his brothers were involved with the Orwell Cricket Club whose ground was at Paddington.  He was said to be at one-time president [26] and certainly his brother James was presented with a bat for services to the club as Honorary Secretary in 1863.[27] In 1864, in a match against the Registrar General’s Office, a J Neale (was it JT or JH Neale or someone else?) took six wickets in the first innings but scored only two runs. For the record, despite Neale’s great bowling effort, the Registrar General’s Office won easily.[28] John was involved in the NSW Cricket Association[29] and was a large shareholder in Sydney (Association) Cricket Ground.[30] He was a committee member and helped raise funds for Charles Lawrence, the coach of the Aboriginal Cricket team, to tour England.[31]


Over his lifetime, Neale did not take an active interest in politics. He did, however, stand for election to the Sydney Council and was elected in April 1857 as an Alderman for both Phillip and Denison Wards. He topped the poll by a wide margin and did so again in December of 1857.[32] He served until November 1859 when he did not stand for re-election.[33]

When the Wivenhoe Estate Fund was commenced, Neale gave a donation of £100[34] and was on the committee to oversee the fund’s successful implementation. This indicates an appreciation of the service of Charles Cowper as the Fund’s purpose was to relieve his estate from debt. As one paper said:

it is but a just and fitting tribute to the private worth and unblemished reputation of Mr Cowper, whose best years have been devoted to the service of the colony; and who (however mistaken at times) has been, and ever will be, recognised as one of the ablest statesmen that has presided over the destinies of this great empire to be.[35]

 Total Abstinence Society

John Neale, John Thomas’ father, was deeply involved in the Sydney Total Abstinence Society, sharing in its establishment in 1838,[36] and later both as its President (1842-3) and its Treasurer (1840-3). His son Alfred (1825-1906)[37] and probably his nephew Robert[38] were also involved in the movement, but there is no evidence that John Thomas was a member. It seems that John did not maintain such views as he was the owner of numerous public houses.[39]


The Neales were associated with the Wesleyan Church in the Woolloomooloo area. Wesleyan work began in this area in 1848 but a church was not erected in Dowling-street until 1859. Dowling Street was later closed and a new church, the William Street Wesleyan Church, was opened in 1873 to replace it. It was said of John Neale that he was “a regular worshipper at the William Street Methodist Church from the time of its erection and for a number of years previously at the Dowling-street Church.”[40] In January of 1860, Hannah was one of the workers at a Bazaar in aid of funds for the new church[41] and it is possibly relevant that among the first Sunday School teachers in 1859 was a Miss Neale.[42] In 1864, at a meeting in the Dowling Street Wesleyan Church in a movement initiated by members of that church, John and his brother James were both elected as directors of the Woolloomooloo Penny Bank.[43] John was not just an attender of the Church but a financial supporter for

His contributions to the Circuit and Trust Funds were constant and systematic… One of his last acts of generosity, on hearing that an effort was being made to liquidate the circuit deficiency, was to hand the minister a cheque covering one half the required amount; and among his charitable bequests the Trustees gratefully notice the sum of £2000 to reduce the debt on the Church.[44]

That the William Street church was the subject of significant bequests by both John and Hannah would suggest a level of interest, if not commitment, in its mission and work.[45]

William Street Wesleyan Church

In what seems an unusual personal bequest, John left £1000 in his will to ‘Mrs Rowe the wife of Thomas Rowe, Darling Point’, and in a codicil left an additional £500 ‘to Mrs Rowe, wife of Colonel Rowe’. In her will, Hannah also left £300 to Mrs Thomas Rowe and £100 each to Thomas Rowe’s sisters, Annie and Rosetta. Rowe himself died in 1899 and so was alive at the time of the first bequest. The need for the bequests is perhaps explained by the ADB entry on Thomas Rowe,

At the peak of his career in 1890, Rowe was reputedly worth £70,000 with an income of £14,000. He lost nearly all of this in the 1893 depression with the collapse of a syndicate, formed to build a natatorium in Pitt Street. Virtually penniless, Rowe died of cancer on 14 January 1899, at his lavishly furnished home Mona, Darling Point. To pay his debts and bring up her children, his widow had to take in boarders and run art unions with Rowe’s valuable pictures as prizes, including a Constable landscape. [46]

While this does explain the need for the bequest the reason is probably supplied by the fact that Colonel Rowe had been the foundation Sunday School superintendent at the Dowling Street Wesleyan Church and the William Street Wesleyan Church for over 17 years.[47] The Rowe and Neale families knew one another from that context.[48] Colonel Rowe attended JT Neale’s funeral and it seems that they were probably friends.[49]

Each month on Sunday afternoons, from sometime after 1885 and at the William Street Church, Hannah would make it possible for some 50 copies of the ‘Glad Tidings’ to be distributed among the William street cabbies who carried passengers with their horse-drawn cabs.[50] In 1899, she donated some £500 to the William Street Church’s contribution to the Methodist Church Century Commemoration Fund.[51]


Putting aside the inheritances and gifts given to family and friends, an examination of the Neale bequests reveals similar characteristics about the two bequests which were made some 14 years apart with those of John preceding those of Hannah.


Firstly, in terms of value, the bequests of Hannah far exceed those of John both in total amount given (£47,500/£18,500) and in the amount given in individual bequests. For example, both left money to the Sydney Hospital, John £3,000 and Hannah £6,000 but, as in all the amounts left, they are significant sums of money and would have been very helpful to the recipients. In terms of total estate, the bequests of Hannah also far exceed those of John; Hannah gave some 6.2% of her estate to charity whereas John gave 2.3%.

Secondly, Hannah’s list of recipients is mostly the same as those of John. John gave 13 separate bequests and Hannah 15. The differences in the lists are that Hannah does not give to the Randwick Asylum but adds the Queen Victoria Home for Consumptives and the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children.

Thirdly, the distribution of the bequests displayed a preference in the Neales’ charitable interests. Hospitals receive the greatest percentage of their giving (51%), next come children’s charity (18%); Relief (11%); the Wesleyan Church (10%); Improvement (7%) and Mission (2%). There are different ways of classifying the organisations that received bequests which would alter the percentages but not change the trend detected in the Neale bequests. Without question, their giving favoured those organisations building community facilities (hospitals) and clearly the childless couple also gave a significant proportion of their wealth for the benefit of children. While the Church received a biblical 10% (was this deliberate or accidental?) another 2% was given for mission both of which were support for organisations seeking to propagate the Christian faith.

Fourthly, the bequests were largely to organisations they already supported. Records are fragmentary for the various charities, but John regularly supported the Society for the Relief of Destitute Children and the Randwick Asylum from the first time he gave a £50 donation in 1857.[52] This donation was the proceeds of a court decision against Inspector M’Lerie for John’s wrongful arrest over an allegation of cattle stealing and bestowed on him the status of a life Director.[53] John also supported the Ragged Schools at least from 1864 and Hannah the Sydney Female Refuge from 1865. The Neales supported the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institution[54] almost every year from 1864 until 1910.[55] As this organisation is the only one of those supported by the Neales to have a full set of records, it could well be that the consistency of the Neales’ pre-bequest giving to this cause was replicated in their other charitable interests as well. In 1897, the year of his death, John donated £200 and Hannah donated £200 in 1899 for the proposed home for consumptives (Queen Victoria Home for Consumptives).[56] The Prince Alfred Hospital received £20 from John in 1868[57]and Hannah gave £500 in 1904 to the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children.[58] She also supported the Sydney Female Refuge from at least 1865 until 1899.[59]

Contemporary Assessment

Neale said “I have very much to be thankful for; I have had a long life, good health, and many blessings”.[60] Prior to his death in September 1897, in response to an encouragement to ‘trust solely on the crucified Saviour as the only sure ground of the sinner’s faith and hope, he quickly responded – “Yes, I know if I trust in anything else I shall lean on a broken reed”’. Reporting on his last days, the Methodist took all this to mean that Neale was one of those of whom it could be said ‘And them that sleep in Jesus will God bring to Him’.[61] His loving wife Hannah had a red granite obelisk erected at his grave in the Methodist section of Rookwood and the inscription she had placed upon it spoke of how she viewed her husband and her belief of his acceptance by God. It was a verse from a hymn of John Wesley:[62]









Others had a different view of Neale for financiers, like bankers today, were subject to harsh criticism by some, but it is difficult to see whether such nineteenth-century criticism was justified. They provided a much-needed service, charged a fee, and when payment was not forthcoming would seek to foreclose on the asset which had been put up as security for the loan. The reviews on John Neale’s life were mixed; he was praised for business success and for the bequests he made, yet for others in the more radical press he was a hypocritical, money loving, greedy mortgage vampire.

On the one hand, it was said that

all his transactions were of the cleanest and most honourable kind, and wherever he loaned – and he did so in many of the municipalities of the State – he only received the current rate of interest, 4 ½ per cent or so.[63]

His liberality and his acts of kindness to persons in need were almost beyond calculation. His assistance took regular and systematic, rather than spasmodic or intermittent, forms; but in a characteristic spirit of unostentation, he never allowed his charity to be made public, and his name rarely figured on a subscription list.[64]

His frequent gifts to the poor and needy were always in a generous, kindly spirit, and free from all ostentation. He lived to give by stealth, and many of his benefactions were never made known to the public.[65]

On the other hand, it was said:

As proving the saintly charity and general blessedness of the late lamented (by the ‘Herald’ and ‘Telegraph’) J. T. Neale, who put up for £375,000 or so, this office has been besieged by starving widows, who have laid their husband’s death and their children’s ruin and starvation to old Neale’s vampire greed as mortgagee. Benevolent? Be damned![66]

In a lengthy poem his character, benevolence and accomplishments were questioned:


The Freemans Journal even complained that

Mrs Neale, who died last week at her residence, Macleay-street, Potts Point, left £50,000 to be divided amongst charitable institutions, Catholic organisations excluded.[68]

It is unlikely that John Neale was either as virtuous or as vile as portrayed. From this historical distance, there is simply not the evidence to sustain a case either way. That he only charged ‘4 ½ per cent or so’ was somewhat inaccurate as his rates did sometimes go as high as 6.35 or 7%. It must be said, however, that much of his loan business was done by tender so his rates for those loans must have been competitive and in line with market expectations. There is no evidence of a harsh policy of eviction by Neale. On private loans, it may have been so, but due to a lack of sources such a judgment cannot be sustained. Such loans only come to notice where court action was needed to be taken so a ‘husband’s death and their children’s ruin and starvation to old Neale’s vampire greed as mortgagee’ may just be inaccurate and untrue hyperbole. While there were private loans they were by nature private and what loans are known were public ones to various local government bodies.

As to his charity, it does seem that it was as suggested: unostentatious and systematic and regular. The reason this can be confirmed is that it is not true that in his giving ‘he never allowed his charity to be made public, and his name rarely figured on a subscription list’. [69] While he may have given much in private he did give as others did to various organisations and to their collectors and consequently his name would appear in their acknowledgements in the newspapers and in the annual reporting of subscription lists.

What is indisputable is that, in terms of the sums of money left as bequests to charitable causes, the Neales were very significant financial philanthropists. It was Andrew Carnegie, the American philanthropist, commenting on those who were philanthropic after their death through their estates, who said

men who leave vast sums in this way may fairly be thought men who would not have left it at all, had they been able to take it with them. The memories of such cannot be held in grateful remembrance, for there is no grace in their gifts.[70]

Whether Carnegie’s comments apply to the Neales is an open question. While they did give in their life-time such giving could be interpreted as responding to a community expectation placed upon those who were rich rather than as an expression of a philanthropic character.

Dr Paul F Cooper, Research Fellow

Christ College, Sydney.

The appropriate way to cite this article is as follows:

Paul F Cooper. Penny Banks in Colonial NSW: banking that sought to serve. Philanthropy and Philanthropists in Australian Colonial History, July 16, 2018. Available at https:/ john-thomas-neale-1823-1897-and-hannah-maria-bull-1825-1911-financial-philanthropists

[1]  The Daily News (Perth, WA), October 26, 1897, 3. Values in 2011 $ calculated according to the latest Year Book Australia 2012 figures e.g. Current value = £ value x2x2011 CPI value/CPI Number for year of donation.

[2] 16 September 1897. Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW), September 25, 1897, 45.

[3] Sydney Morning Herald (SMH), March 23, 1911, 8.

[4] SMH, November 17, 1843, 1; March 18, 1852, 4.

[5] N. Whitlock & J. Bennett et al, The Complete Book of Trades (London: Thomas Tegg, 1842), 81.

[6] Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW), September 25, 1897, 45; Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW), June 7, 1914, 2.

[7] From <;

[8] SMH, October 22, 1860, 5.

[9] See Ray Christison, Coonamble Shire Thematic History, High Ground Consulting, 2009, 53 for the names of other properties under lease to Neale in 1865.

[10] Bailliere’s New South Wales Gazetteer and Road Guide (Melbourne, 1866); Wellington Times (Wellington, NSW), February 22, 1917, 3.

[11] His holdings as per City of Sydney, Assessment Books at

[12] SMH, June 21, 1861, 7; Goulburn Herald (Goulburn, NSW), October 10, 1860, 4.

[13] Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW), September 25, 1897, 45.

[14] Empire (Sydney, NSW), December 19, 1856, 1.

[15] Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW), March 6, 1915, 5.

[16] SMH, December 12, 1848, 2.

[17] R. Else Mitchell, ‘Mittagong and District – Its Industrial Development’, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 26 (5), 1940, 418-422.

[18] Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW), March 25, 1911, 13.

[19]  The Maitland Daily Mercury (Maitland, NSW), May 12, 1894, 2.

[20] Evening News (Sydney, NSW), October 29, 1887, 6.

[21] Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (Newcastle, NSW), August 20, 1890, 3; Northern Star (Lismore, NSW), October 22, 1887, 4.

[22] Evening News (Sydney, NSW), April 25, 1899, 4.

[23] One instance was John Harris a Riverstone grazier for £1000 in 1893. Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW), April 15, 1893, 11

[24] Goulburn Herald (Goulburn, NSW), September 22, 1897, 2.

[25] The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW), September 18, 1897, 1.

[26]  SMH, June 19, 1897, 10.

[27] SMH, October 7, 1863, 5.

[28] SMH, December 12, 1864, 4.

[29] SMH, October 17, 1863, 5; Empire (Sydney, NSW), October 28, 1864, 1; Goulburn Herald (Goulburn, NSW), February 28, 1863, 3.

[30] Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW), September 25, 1897, 45.

[31] SMH, January 27, 1868, 1.

[32]  Empire (Sydney, NSW), April 14, 1857, 1; SMH, April 20, 1857, 1; Bell’s Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (Sydney, NSW), December 5, 1857, 3. The website on City of Sydney Alderman has confused father and son the period as an Alderman in 1857 should be for John Thomas Neale (the son) the earlier period of service was the father known as John Neale. A cousin also named John Thomas Neale was elected to represent Newtown

[33]  SMH, December 3, 1859, 7.

[34] SMH, May 7, 1866, 1; Sydney Mail (Sydney, NSW), May 5, 1866, 2.

[35] Bell’s Life in Sydney and Sporting Chronicle (Sydney, NSW), May 5, 1866, 3.

[36] The Sun and New South Wales Independent Press (Sydney, NSW), May 6, 1843, 2.

[37] The Teetotaller and General Newspaper (Sydney, NSW), November 23, 1842, 1.

[38] Sydney Herald (Sydney, NSW), November 28, 1840, 2.

[39] His holdings as per City of Sydney Assessment Books at

[40] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), October 2, 1897, 8.

[41] Empire (Sydney, NSW), December 14, 1859, 1.

[42] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), January 26, 1918, 5.

[43]Empire (Sydney, NSW), August 2, 1864, 5. It closed in 1870. SMH, June 18, 1870, 2. Thomas Rowe Sunday School Superintendent of Dowling Street was the chairman of the Board.

[44] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), October 2, 1897, 8.

[45] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), July 15, 1933, 10.

[46] J. M. Freeland, ‘Rowe, Thomas (1829–1899)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,, published first in hardcopy 1976, accessed online 5 March 2018.

[47] Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW), January 21, 1899, 21; The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), January 28, 1899, 1.

[48] JT Neale paid for a tea for the Sunday School at Dowling street for the Bible presentation to the Prince Alfred. Sydney Mail (Sydney, NSW), July 25, 1868, 4.

[49] Evening News (Sydney, NSW), September 18, 1897, 6.

[50] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), February 2, 1918, 3. Glad Tidings was a Sydney Christian publication begun in 1885 and devoted to recording and spreading the good news of full salvation.

[51] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), August 5, 1899, 8.

[52] SMH, July 25, 1857, 1. He annually gave £5 from at least 1873 – 1886.

[53] Waugh’s Australian Almanac, 1860, 197; Sydney Mail (Sydney, NSW), March 10, 1866, 3.

[54] SMH, May 2, 1885, 5.

[55] Annual Reports of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institute 1863-1911. There was a short hiatus in support in the years 1873-1878.

[56]  The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW), May 20, 1897, 3; Evening News (Sydney, NSW), August 28, 1899, 4.

[57] SMH, April 9, 1868, 8.

[58] SMH, December 24, 1904, 8.

[59] Sydney Female Refuge Annual Reports 1865, 1868, 1871, 1874, 1876, 1879, 1880, 1887, 1888, 1899.

[60] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), October 2, 1897, 8.

[61] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), October 2, 1897, 8.

[62] John Wesley, A Collection of Hymns for the use of the people called Methodists. (Gainsborough, 1813), 52-53. Hannah’s inscription on the same memorial is brief and uses the same words as that of her mother’s grave at Liverpool. HER LIFE WAS USEFUL, HER DEATH WAS PEACEFUL,   SHE SLEEPS IN JESUS

[63] Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW), March 25, 1911, 13.

[64] Goulburn Herald (Goulburn, NSW), September 22, 1897, 2.

[65] The Methodist (Sydney, NSW), October 2, 1897, 8.

[66] Truth (Sydney, NSW), October 3, 1897, 1.

[67] Truth (Sydney, NSW), September 26, 1897, 5. From Pasquino, a mutilated statue at Rome, set up against the wall of the place of the Orsini; so called from a witty cobbler or tailor, near whose shop the statue was dug up. On this statue it was customary to paste satirical notes.

[68] Freeman’s Journal (Sydney, NSW), March 30, 1911, 17.

[69] Goulburn Herald (Goulburn, NSW), September 22, 1897, 2.

[70] Andrew Carnegie, ‘Wealth,’ North American Review, CCCXCI (June 1889):4. [accessed May 31, 2011].

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